Whole Number Arithmetic Online Documentation

Glossary


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addend
A number that is added in an addition problem.
addition
The process of combining two or more numbers to find their sum. Addition is used to find the result of putting together items in a group, or parts in a whole. Addition is indicated by the plus sign (+). Addition is the opposite of subtraction.
arithmetic
A branch of mathematics that involves combining numbers by addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
borrowing
In subtraction, to take one (unit of ten) from a digit in the minuend to add as ten to the digit with the next lower place value in the minuend. Done when the number in the minuend is smaller than the number in the corresponding place in the subtrahend.
carrying
To move numbers from a given place value, or column, to the next greater place value. When the results of addition or multiplication are a number greater than 9, the number is regrouped this way. The ones are put in place, and the other values are carried to the next column.
commutative property
In addition, the order of addends does not change the sum (2+4 = 4+2). In multiplication, the order of factors being multiplied does not change the product (2X4 = 4X2). (See order property)
difference
The number that results from subtraction.
	3  	minuend
-  	2 	subtrahend
    __________
        1	difference
dividend
The number or quantity being divided.
divisible
A number is divisible by another number if it goes into the number evenly with no remainder
division
The operation used to determine how many times a given number, or quantity, is contained in another number. Division is used to divide or partition a whole into parts. Division is the opposite of multiplication.
divisor
The number by which the dividend is divided in a division problem.
factor
One of the numbers to be multiplied in a multiplication problem.
identity property
In addition, adding 0 to a number leaves the number unchanged, or identical (2+0=2). In multiplication, the product of any number and 1 is that number (4X1=4). (See property of zero; property of one.)
mathematics
The science that deals with numbers, quantities, shapes, patterns measurement, and the concepts related to them, and their relationships. Includes arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus, etc.
mean
The average of a set of numbers. Found by adding all the numbers in a set and dividing the sum by the number of entries.
median
The middle number in a group of numbers when the group is arranged in order.
menu
A list of choices of commands to choose. Menus can be made available by pointing to and clicking items on the menu bar.
minuend
The quantity from which the subtrahend is deducted in subtraction.
	3  	minuend
-  	2 	subtrahend

mode
The data item that occurs most often in a set of data. (There may be more than one mode.)
multiple
A number that is a product of a number and another number.
    6 X 2 = 12
    12 is a multiple of 2 and a multiple of 6

    4 X 2 = 8
    8 is a multiple of 2 and a multiple of 4

multiplicand
The number that is multiplied by the multiplier.
	3  	multiplicand
X  	2 	multiplier

multiplication
The operation used to put together a number of sets of the same size. Multiplication is indicated by the times sign (X), which may also be represented by a dot () or an asterisk (*). The operation of multiplication is the same as repeating addition (e.g., the answer to 2 X 3 is the same as adding 2 to itself 3 times or 2+2+2). Multiplication is the opposite of division.
multiplier
The number by which the multiplicand is multiplied.
	3  	multiplicand
X  	2 	multiplier

one property
The product of any number and 1 is that number. (See identity property.)
order property
In addition, the order of addends does not change the sum (2+4 = 4+2). In multiplication, the order of factors being multiplied does not change the product (2X4 = 4X2). (See commutative property)
place value
Every place in a numeral has a value. The value of each digit depends on its place in the numeral. In the decimal number system each place in a numeral is ten times the value of the place to the right. The first place on the right has the value of one, in the 'ones' position. The next place value to the left is 10, in the 'tens' position. The next place value is 10 X 10, or the 'hundreds' position. Working to the left the next position is thousands, then ten thousands, then hundred thousands, then millions, and so on.
product
The number resulting from two numbers being multiplied.
		3  	multiplicand
              X 2 	multiplier
            __________
                6       product
property of one
In multiplication, the product of any number and 1 is that number (2 X 1 = 2). In division, any number divided by 1 will equal that number (3/1 = 3). (See identity property.)
property of zero
The sum of any number and zero is that number (2 + 0 = 2). The product of any number and zero equals zero (3 * 0 = 0). (See identity property.)
quotient
The number that results when numbers are divided.
regroup
To change the grouping of numbers by separating ones, from tens, from hundreds, and so forth, and grouping the parts of the numbers with other like values. (See borrowing, carrying.)
remainder
The number that is left over in a division problem if the dividend was not evenly divisible by the divisor.
subtraction
The operation used to find the result of taking away something from a group, or finding parts of a whole. Subtraction is indicated by the minus sign (-). Subtraction is the opposite of addition. When a number is subtracted from another number, the resulting number is smaller than the minuend.
subtrahend
The quantity that is deducted from the minuend in subtraction.
	3  	minuend
-  	2 	subtrahend
sum
The result of numbers being added in an addition problem.
whole numbers
Numbers in the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ........}. Numbers that are not fractions, not decimals.
zero property
The sum of any number and zero is that number (2 + 0 = 2). The product of any number and zero equals zero (3 * 0 = 0). (See identity property.)

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Last Updated on October 6, 2000 by Chuck at SSSoftware.com